Category: Columbia

Netherlandish Proverbs by  Brugel

Getting ready for an Art Humanities final? To help you study, we’re sharing notes written by Colin Howard, CC ’17 that will make sure you’re ready to ace the exam.

Overview & Agenda

  • Exams will cover different material depending on the instructor. For example, Knox’s section does not cover Frank Lloyd Wright or Corbu, so this session will not focus on those, and her final is not cumulative.
  • The point of Art Hum is to help students learn visual literacy; in others worrds, how to read a work of art: its formal aspects, functions, expressive content, and aesthetic merits.
  • Understanding the different media, tools, and methods used to create a work is also important
  • This class traces the evolution of mimesis, illusion, and representation in Western art. That’s why we start with Greece – the human form represented in the way it appears to us in “reality.” This review session will follow that evolution.

Important Questions

  • What is art?
  • Why do we look at art? What are we looking for? (Hint: art wants you to understand different things in different eras.)
  • Who collects and commissions art? What’s the purpose of art from their perspective?
  • What is a masterpiece and does that matter?
  • What do the visual arts share with literature? With music?
  • Why do we make art? What purpose does it serve? Some examples:
    • Religion
    • Politics
    • Economic (status, wealth)
    • Social (identity)
    • Awareness of the Human Body
    • Beauty
  • How does a work of art comment on:
    • the personal life of the artist?
    • the historical context of the work?
    • the subject? (e.g. portraiture)
    • gender?
    • how we engage with space?
  • How do we respond to art:
    • physically?
    • conceptually?
    • spiritually?
    • emotionally?
    • sexually?
  • Does art have a history? It may help us to track the evolution of various genres:
    • history painting (or “grand narrative” painting),
    • portraiture and self-portraiture,
    • the nude,
    • landscape (which really arises after Bruegel), and
    • still life (which Knox’s section didn’t focus on too much).

Key Terms

  • Mimesis – the imitation or representation of aspects of the sensible world
  • Representation – causing a work of art to replicate an aspect of “reality,” insofar as it is possible
  • Illusion – how a work of art appears to be something it is not (e.g., when a painting appears three-dimensional)
  • Medium – the physical materials used to create a particular work
  • Composition – how materials are used to create order in a particular work
  • Naturalism – an attempt to reconcile art with the reality we perceive
  • Abstraction – working with art on a higher level, removed from reality (cf. naturalism)
  • Modernism – a philosophical and artistic movement interested in re-examining inherited truths and artistic methods, and finding truth and beauty in everyday life

The First Half of the Course

  • The Parthenon & Greek Sculpture
    • Order – as in the various orders of columns used in the Parthenon. The construction of structures is regulated as much as possible for ease of replication.
    • Proportion – harmony, as in using the proportions of the human body in architecture.
    • Contrapposto – one approach to representing an understanding of how the human body turns and is most comfortable.
    • Naturalism – an interest in presenting the human body that looks appropriate, rather than awkward (e.g. the sculptural program at the Amiens cathedral) or abstract (e.g. Picasso’s Les Demoiselles d’Avignon).
    • Mimesis – as before.
  • The Gothic and Amiens Cathedral
    • Vaulting – upward-gesturing vaults, as opposed to rectangles in Greek architecture and semicircular arches in Roman architecture, increase the space available.
    • Houses of Worship – French Gothic architecture in cathedrals focuses less on housing the gods, and more on housing the worshippers.
    • Light – opening up a building for a sense of the spiritual.
    • Transparency – a structure is both decorative and structural at the same time.
    • Hieratic Scale – the positioning and relative size in figures in sculpture meant to emphasize their relative importance or existence in the order of things.
    • Being vs. Becoming – the spiritual (being, as in the statue of Jesus on the door jamb) versus the temporal (becoming, as in the spear-holder of ancient Greece).
    • Anagogical Form – a medieval form that seeks to speak to the mystical and miraculous. Art doesn’t have to appear real but does have to speak to a higher form to see God (e.g., stained-glass windows).
  • Early Renaissance Painting
    • Linear perspective – a system that allows artists to think about placing figures in space based on a vanishing point (becomes essentially canonical for four centuries).
    • Alberti – codifies this and many other parts of this system in representational art.
    • Chiaroscuro – the use of heavy contrast between light and dark.
    • Humanism – the centering of the individual using secular Greek and Roman texts.
  • Raphael and the Human Figure (portaits and the Stanza della Segnatura)
    • Julius II – sponsor of many works of religious art, including St. Peter’s Basilica, the Stanza della Segnatura, and many other works by Raphael (and Michelangelo).
    • High Renaissance – pinnacle of the systems described by Alberti.
    • Portraiture – for the first time in the Renaissance, artists were not just painting the aristocracy but the merchant class as well.
    • Iconography – the practice of understanding symbolic meaning on multiple levels.
    • Rebirth of Classical Antiquity
  • Michelangelo
    • Sculptural Theory of Subtraction – when the removal of material from a larger whole is the central aspect to creating a work of art.
    • Concetto – the idea leading to a work of art.
    • Neoplatonism – a religion and philosophical school of thought that sought to combine Platonic philosophy with Christian dogma. Michelangelo was a strong adherent.
  • Bernini
    • Baroque – the period of art subsequent and responding to Renaissance ideas. Emphasized passion, drama, and psychology.
    • Pictorialism – using material to tell a story.
    • Paragone – is painting or sculpture or literature better? Bernini and other Baroque artists are explicitly responding to this question.
    • Spectacle – when a work is designed for public attention and consumption.
    • Gesamtkunstwerk – the total work of art (e.g. the Passion of St. Theresa).

The Second Half of the Course

  • Northern Renaissance Painting
    • Empirical Perspective and Intense Observation – van Eyck and Bosch aren’t aware of the scientific perspective work done by their Italian counterparts, so they use intense observation to closely replicate a scene. This is called “empirical perspective” because it arrives at, rather than starts from, first principles.
    • Oil Paint – a new material allows for greater control of form.
    • Panorama – larger landscapes come to greater fruition when Bruegel tackles them.
    • Intricate Allegory and Irony – painting starts to incorporate narrative and parable.
    • Merchant Class – quickly becomes a large part of artists’ patronage.
    • Distribution – prints and the printing press change the way art is consumed and by whom it is consumed.
  • Bruegel
    • Protestant Reformation – the needs of the church are different (no more decorative objects in churches, because that’s worship of false idols!), so painting becomes much more secular.
    • Rise of the Merchant Class – again, who is purchasing the art changes its subject.
    • Urbanism – art begins centering not around cities where the church is powerful but around cities that have a strong mercantile economy.
    • Allegory – when artists are aware of what’s happening in literature (Erasmus’ In Praise of Folly) and respond to it.
    • Humanism – Bruegel’s work expresses a common humanity – everyone can relate to these images!
    • Landscape – Bruegel becomes the first master of the landscape genre, in which there is little-to-no emphasis on human life
    • Peasantry and Stereotype – the peasant class is the topic of much of Bruegel’s work – is he celebrating them or mocking them?
  • Rembrandt (cf. Bernini and the Baroque)
    • Wolfflinian terms – linear to painterly, plane to recession, closed to open, multiplicity to unity, absolute clarity to relative clarity.
    • Realism – images of “real life;” Rembrandt dresses up and paints the local populace to practice and show off his skills.
    • Theatricality – there’s an element of performance to Rembrandt’s work, his portraiture especially.
    • Portraiture – there’s a lot we can get out of Rembrandt’s very deliberate portraiture – self, duo, and group. Hands and facial expressions are a great place to start.
    • The Nude – Berger’s dichotomy between naked and nude.
    • Etching, Engraving, and Printing – objects Rembrandt creates and replicates are widely distributed, each with small changes that reflect the artist’s hand and his experimentation with form.
  • Goya
    • The Enlightenment and Romanticism – Goya is often seen as the painter of the Enlightenment, but a more accurate characterization of him would be as the painter who bridges the gap between the Enlightenment and Romanticism, and questions both.
    • Spanish Cultural Moment – crucial to understanding Goya’s work. Look at the difference between his court portraits of the royal family and his history paintings (also commissioned by the Spanish government).
    • Satire and Irony – incorporated into Los Caprichos, but mostly absent from The Disasters of War.
    • Printing and Reproduction – Los Caprichos, later shut down by the Inquisition, sought to poke fun at many aspects of society
    • Fantasy and Imagination – the first time (apart from Bosch) a major artist incorporates these elements into his body of work. The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters is a key example of this.
    • History Painting – many aspects of the historical moment, as well as a focus on emotional happenings, are incorporated into the Second of May and the Third of May – in short as electricity as well as emotion.
    • Pueblo/Illustrado/Maha – Goya and the Spanish court adopt many aspects of lower-class culture (including fashion) in an attempt to appear connected with the people.
  • Manet
    • The Academy & the Salon – quasi-public forces that dominated French art for decades, requiring strict adherence to what were believed to be high standards.
    • Haussmanization and the Second Empire – the demolishment and rebuilding of Paris under Napoleon III and Haussman allowed for the rise of cafe culture, spectacle, and the mixing of the classes.
    • Flaneur – a stroller, someone who would walk around Paris simply to see and be seen, with a sense of alienation.
    • Positivism – a philosophical system that believes that technological innovation results, in the end, in progress for the betterment of the human condition.
    • Optical Consumption – the understanding of what we see as spectacle, sponsoring an awareness of the world around us as foreign and other.
  • Early Monet
    • The Impressionist Eye – the goal of painting what we actually see as opposed to what we believe we should see. Also worth noting: Charles Baudelaire calls artists to “paint modern life.”
    • Optical – two-dimensional rejection/unlearning of what are understood as the three-dimensional tricks of the trade. The subject of the painting is still recognizable, but the shift towards the optical means we see paintings (and reality) as a two-dimensional sphere, not as mirrors reflecting a three-dimensional world.
    • Leisure and the Bourgeois – part of the modern moment, in which generally middle-class Parisians would leave the city and enjoy otium in the countryside.
    • Photography – because the invention of the camera could make the absent present, previously thought to be the purpose of painting, painting needed to do something different.
    • Japonisme – Japanese prints believed by French and other modern artists to be a new way of understanding the world, as the Eastern tradition developed without the representational techniques of the Western canon.
  • Late Monet
    • Quasi Scientific Series – playing with atmosphere, light, time of day (these, not necessarily the scene itself, are the subject of the painting).
    • Neo-Impressionism – Seurat and others have a new color theory, and they use tension between colors to implement a visual and emotional response to the painting itself (as opposed to its content).
    • Dematerialization – moving further away from capturing the subject matter, to dematerializing forms as seen visually.
    • Abstraction – in art, abstraction is the opposite of the mimetic, because its project is not to represent. It attempts to convey something that can’t simply be copied because it’s wholly in the artist’s mind.
  • Picasso
    • The Gisante – in the Demoiselles d’Avignon, the gisante is lying down, not standing – Steinberg gets this because he looks at how the painting evolves over several drafts
    • Sexuality and Self-Discovery – originally called the “Brothel of Avignon,” this work and others by Picasso respond to and incorporate Freudian psychoanalysis, attempting to understand sex as a means towards self-discovery and self-actualization.
    • Modernism – modernization is advancements in technology. Modernity is an era characterized by a questioning of norms and practices, especially in the arts – but which happens at the same time as industrialization, urbanization, secularization, individualism, and positivism. Modernism is a philosophical and artistic system that sought to find truth in the everyday and other sources commonly overlooked in the pre-Enlightenment and pre-Romantic era.
    • Fauve – literally a “wild beast,” a fauve was a member of the “fauvist” movement, headed by Matisse and Braque, at the beginning of the 20th century, in which color and form became one.
    • Form and Content – form is the style, techniques, media, and design elements in a work of art; its content is what is being depicted and how that and the form are interpreted.
    • Cubism and Deconstruction – both analytic and synthetic, cubism was a short-lived artistic movement that sought to deconstruct and reconstruct visual forms and structures in an abstract way.
    • Re-Presenting vs. Representing – the idea of representing physical reality versus presenting a work completely anew.
    • Anti-Imitation – Picasso and others avoided imitating
    • Spatial Relativity
    • Primitivism
    • Freedom of Exploration
    • Psychological Investigation
    • Surrealism
    • Political Commentary
  • Pollock and Warhol
    • Gestural Automatism – psychological state induced by allowing the body to involved with releasing inner demons (from Jungian psychoanalysis, which Pollock underwent) – essentially a stream of consciousness in physical form.
    • Action Painting – moving around a canvas (notably, on the floor – not on an easel) and using a variety of techniques while in the process of painting it.
    • Abstract Expressionism – in abstract expressionism, the act (of expressing) more important than the work (the end result of that act) itself.
    • Clement Greenberg – an art critic who loved Pollock and disliked Warhol.
    • Pop Art – an artistic movement interested in incorporating elements of popular culture into works of art, challenging traditional standards of what constitutes fine art.
    • Mechanical Reproduction – the reproduction of images in and from sources going into art, the reproduction of images in the process of making that art (silk screen printing), and the subsequent reproduction of those works of art.
    • Commodity Culture – a culture in which everything (up to and including intangibles like beauty, happiness, and love) is bought or sold and has a monetary value. Mocked/celebrated by artists who believed commodification had proceeded in Western culture to the point of absurdity.
    • Celebrity Obsession – a culture in which individuals and society are intrigued by, enamored with, and obsessed with celebrity figures (sometimes for no discernible reason), often proceeding to the point of commodification. Marilyn Monroe can be bought or sold just like cans of tomato soup.
    • Labels, Logos, Advertising, Consumerism – the incorporation of these elements into works is a key characteristic of pop art.
    • Death and Violence – the use of death and violence as compelling spectacle (car crashes, assassinations, suicides, capital punishment, etc.) for the viewer.
    • Appropriation – the act of reusing or re-presenting the artistic and/or cultural characteristics of the other with little-to-no transformation or original additions, and (problematically) often without due credit or acknowledgement.

Have a study guide of your own that you want to share? Email it to us at submissions@columbialion.com.

Photo Courtesy of Double Discovery Center

Today, an email was sent out to the Double Discovery Student Volunteers by the executive director of the program to let them know that the Department of Education has ceased their funding of the Upward Bound program for first-generation and low-income students due to a technicality: incorrect spacing in parts of the application.

The full email can be found below:

Dear Double Discovery Student Volunteers:

I am writing with some difficult news regarding Double Discovery Center’s Upward Bound Program, which, as you may know, each year provides supplemental schooling and support to prepare nearly 200 first-generation and low-income college-bound students for success.

We have been notified by the U.S. Department of Education that DDC’s application to continue funding for our Upward Bound program from July 2017 through June 2022 has been deemed ineligible for consideration due to a technicality regarding the line spacing of our charts, tables, figures, and graphs. That means a devastating loss of funding for this important program.

The decision by the Department of Education has been distressing given its direct impact on students and the longevity and proven success of our Upward Bound program. We have received Upward Bound support from the U.S. government for more than 50 years. Unfortunately, DDC is not alone–at least 40 other Upward Bound programs have had their applications denied due to technicalities this year.

Upward Bound is an essential part of DDC and an invaluable service to our community and we are committed to doing all that we can to maintain the program in the future. Columbia College and Columbia University Government and Community Affairs have contacted our senators and congressmen, who are advocating for the program at the highest levels. Key legislative members have asked Education Secretary Betsy DeVos and others within the Department of Education to reconsider our application.

The College has identified contingency funding for the Summer Academy so that we can provide assurances that the summer program will take place regardless of what happens on the legislative front. Our Talent Search grant, which was renewed last year for four years, is not impacted by this current situation.

We remain committed to Double Discovery’s work of providing academic, career, college, and financial aid counseling and support services to low-income and first-generation college-bound youth in our neighboring communities, and we are grateful for your support of and dedication to this work and to Double Discovery students.

I will notify of you of any updates. In the meantime, I wish you the luck on your remaining finals, and encourage you to reach out or stop by our offices if you have any questions or if you want to talk about this difficult news.

Sincerely,

Joseph Ayala

Executive Director

The Roger Lehecka Double Discovery Center at Columbia College

Earlier today, the Barnard community received notice of a phishing attack aimed at university students. The phishing attempt occurs when a hacked university account attempts to share a Google doc with the target. When the target clicks the link to open the document, the hackers gain access to the target’s login information and may install malware to their Google account. Victoria Swann of Barnard User Services offers tips for staying safe and what to do if you’ve been hacked below*:

Dear members of the Barnard community,

There is currently a major phishing attack underway; not just at Barnard, but also Columbia and many other higher ed institutions. It takes the same form as any ordinary notification of a Google Doc being shared with you; and it may come from a person you know, or it may come from an address at “mailinator.com“.

DO NOT respond to that message or click the link in it.  If you did click the link, change your password immediately at password.barnard.edu or contact the BCIT Service Desk for assistance at 212-854-7172.  (Students can also go to 307 Diana for assistance; faculty and staff can go to Milbank 13.)

The link *may* also have given the malware package other access to your Google Account.  Please check the apps linked to your account (My Account -> Sign-in & Security -> Connected apps & sites) and remove any that you do not recognize.  Again, please contact BCIT if you need further assistance.

Google is aware of the issue and is working to alleviate it; and we are working to block additional copies of the attack coming into our domain.

Best Regards,

Victoria Swann
Director, User Services
Barnard College | Columbia University

*The procedure may be different for Columbia students. Contact CUIT for assistance.

The Lion asked candidates to tell us about their campaigns to give us insight into their aspirations and motivations for running. Here is what Alfredo Dominguez had to say:

I am not affiliated with any party. I am Alfredo Dominguez, and I am running for University Senate. I became motivated, and stayed motivated to run for senator because of the egregious lack of diversity among the current senate make-up. This issue of representation is something that extends beyond the lack of people of color representing CC in the University Senate because we also do not have any first-generation or low-income students currently representing CC. As a first-generation, low-income student of color myself I can speak to the feeling of othering that is had when you are one of the most historically marginalized identities but you have no voice on the highest acting body in the University. I do not naively believe that I can be the voice for all people that identify as people of color, first-gen, low-income since every person has their own unique experience, but I am supremely confident that I can do a better job than those that have never lived the experience. With that being said, the goals that I have for my senate tenure are things that will benefit the entire Columbia community. I seek to improve mental health support on campus, and sexual violence and response. These things all provide a wholesale positive affects the Columbia community, but they Mental health has become the number one issue at Columbia, and for good reason. Our community was rocked by the recent waves of suicide and it is clear that something must be done to better campus-wide mental health. The Student affairs community has already created a steering group that will work with the Jed foundation to evaluate how the university needs to address the issues of mental health on campus. Hence, my focus as a University Senator would ensure that the voices of Columbia’s most marginalized communities, who are disproportionately affected by mental health, are brought to the conversation on how to better mental health on campus. The initiative I would center in these conversations would be increasing the diversity of the CPS staff. Me and every other student of color or first-generation student who wanted to have their CPS staff member to be a person of color or a first-generation would have to wait even longer than normal to receive help. This wait time could be up to half of the semester, which is a ridiculous amount of time to have to wait to receive help. Further, I want to take a comprehensive look at how CPS is handled during NSOP in hopes of decreasing the stigma around mental health and ensuring that as many people get help as need help. One such program that I would advocate for would be an Opt-Out appointment that all freshmen would be signed up for. Each student would choose if they wanted to actually attend the appointment, but this would remove the initial stress and stigma of having to schedule an appointment with CPS in the first place.

Next, even though sexual violence has remained a big issue in campus, it does not seem that there has been effective reform. It would difficult to convince the university to allocate more funds, but we can take a comprehensive look at the programs we have now and how we can improve them. For example, there was an SVR requirement during NSOP, but it was very light and played down how big of an issue sexual violence is on campus. Hence as University Senator, I will take a look an extensive look at these programs, and bring in the voices of groups like No Red Tape to center the experience of survivors in the process of reform.

I do not know if I would use the word “fix”, but I would like to improve upon Columbia’s commitment to Community Service. Community Service is a lacking part of the Columbia experience. Many of us acknowledge and criticize Columbia for its negative impact on the Harlem community, but few of us spend a lot of time trying to help the community. That is largely in part to the fact that many students just do not have the time to spend looking for community service opportunities. Hence, I will want to work with SGB and ABC, the umbrella organizations that contain almost all students groups, to incentivize all student groups to have more service events. These incentives would be given in the form of increased budget allocation.

Vote Alfredo Dominguez for University Senate! 

The Lion asked candidates five questions about their campaigns to give us insight into their aspirations and motivations for running. Here is what Maria Fernanda Martinez had to say:

1. Are you affiliated with a party, and if so, which one? 

Nope 

2. What position are you running for, and what motivated you to run for it? 

Alumni Affairs–honestly, the closer graduation gets the more I realize how little we make use of our alumni connections and they’re one of our biggest resources on this campus. I want to make sure that this is a resource we all can feel comfortable using and knowledgeable about. 

3. If elected, what are your goals? How do you plan to actually achieve them? 

My goals are to increase accessibility in this area of our lives for all students, and I plan on achieving that by really keeping things simple and going back to basics. What is networking at its core about? It’s about making connections and maintaining relationships. The best way to do these things is to actually interact with people with whom we have shared interests and common backgrounds. My goals are simple: create a student-led newsletter for alumni, host curated alumni-student meet ups based on specific interests and backgrounds, and make sure to lead workshops prior to these meetings that help students work through anxieties about networking and provides folks with specific strategies they can implement. 

4. What is something you want to fix at Columbia? How would you plan to address this? 

I would love to push us towards an environment that is less about competing with each other and more about collaboration. I think this would be so useful in helping to deal with stress culture etc on campus. I plan on addressing this by creating spaces that function on the basis of people working together, and emphasizing that there is no need to compete when there are so many things to do and achieve! 

5. Any additional comments you’d like to share with voters

While I am running for your Alumni Affairs representative, there is a wide range of issues that I have been involved in throughout my time at Columbia, and I will be able to represent our interests across the board.